National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual video games representing a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized since the league's production in 1920, however no situation had been experienced where two teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine video games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more home video games, the additional house video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic duties, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or devoted conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and including a lifetime ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such earnings similarly among teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in breach of the common business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest expense item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks too.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later because the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.