National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private video games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized because the league's production in 1920, but no circumstance had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring financially rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of four growth groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have just eight home video games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competition of having more house video games, the extra home video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or committed conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such profits equally among groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in breach of the common corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the biggest cost product, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least once a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks too.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined up until much later because the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.