National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been used considering that the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had actually been come across where two groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the house group while half the teams have just eight house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competition of having more house games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a life time restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such income equally among teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in contravention of the common business structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the largest cost product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on most weeks also.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later since the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.