National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been come across where two groups were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring profitable tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the house group while half the teams have just 8 house video games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competition of having more house video games, the extra home game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and an additional two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst teams, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in breach of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the biggest expense product, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least when a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks too.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later on because the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.