National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champion between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized since the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been experienced where 2 teams were tied for first. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining financially rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 video games as the home group while half the teams have only 8 home games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional house video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or committed conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in conflict of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks too.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.