National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion between the very best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games representing many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized because the league's production in 1920, however no situation had actually been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups nine games as the house group while half the teams have just 8 home video games. To reduce the viewed advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and an additional two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such income equally among teams, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest cost product, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.