National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the individual games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been used given that the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had actually been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league rapidly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting lucrative tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, as well as the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the house team while half the groups have only eight house games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional home game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and a further two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league workers, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such profits equally among teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in breach of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on most weeks too.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.