National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champion in between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had been experienced where 2 groups were connected for first. The league rapidly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups nine video games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and a further two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic duties, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and including a life time ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such income similarly among teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million every year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in breach of the common business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest expense product, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games happening on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on because the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.