National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the individual games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been used considering that the league's production in 1920, but no situation had actually been encountered where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring financially rewarding television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have just 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house games, the extra house game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and a further 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, including granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such income similarly amongst teams, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in contravention of the typical business structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person team will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the biggest expense product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later since the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.