National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
including 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been experienced where two teams were tied for initially. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four growth teams, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the house team while half the groups have just eight house games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra house video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and a further 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial duties, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league workers, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or committed conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and including a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the largest expense product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later on because the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.