National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champion in between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used because the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where 2 groups were connected for initially. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting rewarding television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the home group while half the teams have just 8 home games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competition of having more home video games, the additional house game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits similarly amongst groups, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in breach of the typical business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest expense item, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least when a week and Thursday night video games happening on most weeks too.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on because the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.