National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual video games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been encountered where 2 groups were tied for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring profitable tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine video games as the house team while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competition of having more house games, the extra house game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such income similarly amongst groups, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the normal business structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person team will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the largest cost item, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on since the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.