National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been used considering that the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had been experienced where 2 teams were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring profitable television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television agreements and the addition of four expansion teams, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 home games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the additional home game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or devoted conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and including a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such revenue similarly among groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks as well.
NFL games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.