National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private video games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been used considering that the league's development in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting profitable television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 games as the house team while half the teams have just 8 home video games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competition of having more house video games, the extra house video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic duties, consisting of granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a life time ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such earnings similarly amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in conflict of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the biggest expense product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.