National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champion between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual video games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had actually been experienced where 2 teams were tied for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 home games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home games, the additional home game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, working out television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and including a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in conflict of the typical business structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person group will not control the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest expense product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks as well.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on due to the fact that the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.