National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual video games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used considering that the league's production in 1920, however no situation had actually been come across where two teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting profitable television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on minimizing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the house group while half the teams have only eight home video games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such income equally amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in conflict of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the largest expense product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.