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National Football League

Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of teams 32

Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:

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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.

eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting events worldwide, with the individual games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.

Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).

The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.

Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.

The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.

At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used given that the league's development in 1920, but no situation had been come across where two groups were tied for first. The league quickly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champions.

1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL teams.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.

The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.

These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve gamer security.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have only eight house games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competition of having more home games, the extra house video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.

Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a further two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.

The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Corporate structure

Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.

Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..

In contrast, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.

The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, including granting the conference championship prize.

The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.

The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.

In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.

The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Finances

NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst groups, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.

, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.

According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in conflict of the common corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through extreme revenues.

Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest expense item, gamer incomes, is topped.

Regular season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening game of the season is typically a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.

Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on the majority of weeks too.

NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.

In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.

Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later on since the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.

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