National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the individual games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized since the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting profitable tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of four growth teams, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the home group while half the teams have just 8 home video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competitors of having more house games, the additional home video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, working out television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or committed conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such profits equally among groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in conflict of the typical business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the largest cost item, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks as well.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.