National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific video games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used since the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had been encountered where two groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 house games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house games, the additional home video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or committed conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue similarly amongst teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in breach of the typical business structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the largest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on many weeks also.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.