National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champion between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual games accounting for a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used considering that the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been come across where two teams were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it however faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting lucrative television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the home group while half the teams have only eight home games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and a further two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such profits similarly among teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model is in breach of the typical business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest cost product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks also.
NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.