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National Football League

Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:

No. of groups 32

Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website

including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.

eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.

Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).

The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.

Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.

The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.

At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been used because the league's development in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champions.

1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.

The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.

These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine video games as the home team while half the teams have only eight home games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of house games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.

Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.

The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Corporate structure

Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.

Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..

On the other hand, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.

The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.

The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic duties, including granting the championship game trophy.

The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.

The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.

In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.

The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Financial resources

NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.

According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.

Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the biggest expense product, gamer salaries, is topped.

Routine season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.

A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks as well.

NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.

In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.

Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.

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