National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champ in between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific video games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used because the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had actually been experienced where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on minimizing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the groups have only eight house video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions up to and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue similarly among teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in breach of the typical business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on most weeks also.
NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on since the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.