National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champ between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the individual games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been encountered where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the groups nine video games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competition of having more house video games, the extra home video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and including a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such profits similarly among groups, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in conflict of the common business structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the largest cost item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later because the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.