National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been utilized given that the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been encountered where 2 groups were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the teams have only 8 home video games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra house video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such profits equally among groups, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in contravention of the normal business structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the largest expense item, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
The majority of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least when a week and Thursday night video games occurring on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.