National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized since the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had actually been come across where two groups were connected for initially. The league quickly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring profitable tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the groups have just eight house games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has bet on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such earnings similarly amongst teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in breach of the typical business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one team will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the biggest cost product, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least when a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks too.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined until much later on since the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.