National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been used since the league's production in 1920, but no situation had actually been experienced where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining profitable television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 home games. To reduce the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the extra house game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and an additional 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly among teams, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in breach of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest expense product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on the majority of weeks too.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.