National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used given that the league's development in 1920, however no situation had actually been come across where two teams were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining profitable television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine video games as the home team while half the groups have just eight home games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional home video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial duties, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a life time restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such income similarly among groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in breach of the common business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the largest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on most weeks as well.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later on because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.