National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the private games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been used because the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had actually been come across where 2 teams were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the home team while half the teams have just 8 home video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more house video games, the extra house video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such profits similarly amongst teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in contravention of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the biggest cost product, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least when a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.