National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized considering that the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting financially rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the home group while half the teams have just eight house video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also provide sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in conflict of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not control the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks also.
NFL games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later because the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.