National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting events worldwide, with the private video games accounting for a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized given that the league's production in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been come across where 2 teams were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 games as the house group while half the teams have only eight house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional house video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic duties, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or committed conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such income similarly among groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the largest cost item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held at least when a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks as well.
NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not identified until much later due to the fact that the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.