National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (four division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the specific video games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where two groups were tied for initially. The league quickly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the groups have only eight home games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competitors of having more home games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and a further two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has bet on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst teams, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in conflict of the common corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one group will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the biggest expense product, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least when a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks as well.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later on due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.