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National Football League

Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of teams 32

Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site

including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.

eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Establishing and history

On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.

Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).

The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.

Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.

The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.

At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been used since the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.

1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.

A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring financially rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL teams.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.

The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.

These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance gamer safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 home games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the additional house game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.

Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.

The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Business structure

Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.

Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..

On the other hand, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.

The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship trophy.

The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.

The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.

In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.

The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Finances

NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such profits equally among groups, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

Many NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.

The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.

According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in contravention of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through excessive profits.

Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the largest cost product, player salaries, is capped.

Routine season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Currently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening video game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.

A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games occurring on most weeks as well.

NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.

In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.

Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.

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