National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the specific games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been experienced where two groups were tied for first. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on reducing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups nine video games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 home games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competitors of having more home games, the additional home game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The four division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also provide sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst teams, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in contravention of the common business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the biggest expense item, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks also.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.