National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the specific video games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been used considering that the league's development in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been come across where two groups were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the groups have only 8 home video games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competition of having more home games, the extra home video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and a further two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits similarly among groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in contravention of the common corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest cost product, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later on because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.