National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the private games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used given that the league's development in 1920, but no circumstance had been come across where two groups were tied for initially. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting profitable tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television agreements and the addition of four growth teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 house games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competition of having more house games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and a more 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such earnings similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in conflict of the common business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the largest expense product, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later since the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.