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National Football League

Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of teams 32

Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site

including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.

eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champion between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the specific games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.

Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).

The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.

Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.

The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.

At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been used considering that the league's development in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where 2 groups were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.

1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.

The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.

These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and improve gamer safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff development

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just eight house video games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the additional house video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.

Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.

The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Business structure

Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.

Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..

On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they make a profit.

The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.

The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.

The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.

In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.

The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Financial resources

NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly among groups, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

Most NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.

According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in conflict of the typical business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through excessive earnings.

Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the largest cost item, gamer salaries, is capped.

Routine season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening video game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.

Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least once a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks also.

NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.

In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.

Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined up until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.

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