National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used given that the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had actually been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the groups have just eight home games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home games, the extra home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league staff members, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or committed conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such income similarly among groups, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the largest cost product, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later on since the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.