National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been utilized given that the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been encountered where two teams were tied for initially. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the groups have just eight house games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house games, the extra house game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such profits similarly amongst groups, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the typical business structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the largest cost product, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later on since the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.