National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the individual games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, however no situation had been come across where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring financially rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the teams nine video games as the home group while half the teams have only eight house games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competition of having more house games, the additional house game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league workers, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such income equally among groups, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in conflict of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest cost product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on the majority of weeks too.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.