National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used considering that the league's production in 1920, however no situation had been come across where 2 teams were tied for first. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting profitable tv agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 video games as the house team while half the groups have just eight home games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more house video games, the additional house video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, working out television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such revenue similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in breach of the normal business structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person team will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the largest cost product, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.