National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the private games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been used because the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been come across where two teams were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining profitable tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 video games as the house group while half the groups have only eight home video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home games, the extra home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such income similarly amongst teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in conflict of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the largest expense product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on many weeks as well.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.