National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been used given that the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been experienced where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining profitable television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 games as the house team while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competition of having more home games, the extra house game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league workers, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such earnings similarly among teams, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest cost item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games happening on most weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later due to the fact that the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.