National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the individual games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, however no scenario had actually been experienced where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting lucrative television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic duties, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has banked on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model is in conflict of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the biggest cost item, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later on since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.