National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the private games representing many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used considering that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the house group while half the teams have just eight home video games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a further two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such income similarly amongst teams, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million annually from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in conflict of the common business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest expense product, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks too.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not determined up until much later since the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.