National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the specific games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had been encountered where two groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv contracts and the addition of four growth teams, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine video games as the home group while half the groups have only 8 house games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a life time restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such revenue equally among teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest expense product, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks also.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later since the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.