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National Football League

Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:

No. of teams 32

Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site

consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.

eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting events worldwide, with the individual video games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.

Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).

The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.

Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.

The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.

At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used given that the league's production in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league rapidly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.

1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however faced various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.

A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting financially rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.

The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.

These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve player safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have only eight house video games. To lessen the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home games, the extra home game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.

Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.

The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Corporate structure

Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.

Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..

On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.

The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, including awarding the championship game trophy.

The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.

The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.

In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.

The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Financial resources

NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.

According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one group will not control the league through excessive incomes.

Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.

Regular season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.

The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.

NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.

In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.

Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.

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