National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champion between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting profitable television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four growth teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the groups have only eight house games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional house game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue similarly among teams, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the biggest cost product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not determined until much later because the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.