National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized considering that the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been experienced where 2 teams were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining profitable tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine games as the home group while half the teams have only eight home games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the additional house game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such income equally among teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in contravention of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the largest expense item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks also.
NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later since the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.