National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been used considering that the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had actually been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting lucrative television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the house group while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competition of having more home games, the extra house game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such revenue similarly among teams, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in breach of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the largest expense product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games happening on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later because the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.