National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the individual games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used considering that the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had actually been come across where two groups were tied for initially. The league quickly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting profitable television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the groups nine games as the house group while half the teams have just eight house video games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such revenue equally amongst teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in contravention of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest expense item, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.